Yesterday, we brought you a look into the creative process behind the best first-person shooter multiplayer maps in gaming history. Our panel of experts:
- Jim Brown, Lead Level Designer at Epic Games (whose work includes the Unreal series);
- Phillip Tasker, Lead Level Designer at Treyarch (the studio responsible for Call of Duty: World at War and Call of Duty: Black Ops)
- Adam Crist, Design Lead at Certain Affinity (World at War, Black Ops, Halo Reach and Halo: Anniversary)
- Inge Jøran Holberg and Niklas Åstrand from DICE (Battlefield series).
Multiplayer first person shooter matches can sometimes get bogged down in choke points that demand only close quarters battle tactics, or snipers can frustratingly dominate maps. We wanted to know if there was a relationship between viability of variable tactics and map quality. The style of play that a game demanded was the crux of this question for our developers.
“This varies from level to level and game to game. In games where the designer can control which weapons are available on the level, we’ll first define which styles of play we want to support up front and then design the level around that experience,” Adam Crist from Certain Affinity told us. Call of Duty maps, on the other hand, allow players to choose their weapon loadouts, so supporting variety become more important. The other Call of Duty map designer we spoke with reinforced Crist’s point. “Players will always have to adapt their tactics a bit depending on the map, but every player should be able to find some success using their favorite load outs across all maps,” said Phillip Tasker from Treyarch. “For example, if a map is designed primarily as a long range map, there should still be a way for players to traverse the map using shorter range weapons. “
Battlefield players also choose their own loadouts, so DICE has similar concerns. “A level where only snipers are effective, for example, will easily become less dynamic and provide less depth in gameplay than a level that offers a role for each class,” said Holberg and Åstrand. “We need to provide the maps to ensure that you can play with your favorite class.” Jim Brown agreed with all the others’ sentiments. “That’s hard to say without knowing the core gameplay loop of the game in question,” he said, “but as a stock answer I would say ‘if it helps balance the gameplay, then yes.’”
In order to make sure first person shooter players have plenty of variety for their multiplayer gaming, maps need to be able to support multiple game modes. This can be a tricky task for map designers. “Objective-based game modes often rely on symmetrical maps, but asymmetrical maps are often best for straight deathmatch, so the trick is finding a good balance between the two,” said Jim Brown. “Maybe the paths are the same but the visuals on each side are different, maybe the paths are different but the overall placement of weapons or pickups is balanced. Really, what you need to do is test it over and over in all game modes until you find the right mix that satisfies each mode’s needs.”
For Treyarch, this is a pivotal question to answer before the coders even start programming. “Since Call of Duty multiplayer maps are not designed around just one game mode, sanity checks happen early in the paper design to make sure we have viable battle spaces for objectives built in,” said Phillip Tasker. “Some considerations are access from main pathways, locations for re-spawns that are not too close to the objective, and good spots for players to attack and defend them from. If we look at a paper layout that looks fun but find ourselves saying ‘where the heck are the Domination flags going to go?’ then we know we have more work to do.”
The Battlefield 3 team sometimes builds a map with either Rush or Conquest mode in mind specifically, but the basic mechanics of their game that require supporting varied kits and play styles make adapting maps to other game modes a little easier. “Since we were already making sure that each multiplayer map has varying environments from the start, adapting them from a wide-open game mode to a tighter and more focused one wasn’t really all that difficult,” Holberg and Åstrand said.
Certain Affinity takes a different tack on the question. “When approaching the design for a level for a game that supports multiple game modes, we tend to pick one ‘primary’ game mode and 1-2 ‘secondary’ modes to focus on,” said Crist. “With these priorities set we can make better decisions regarding layout and weapon placement. We then playtest the primary and secondary modes daily for weeks and then layer in the rest of the game modes once the initial modes are a blast to play.”
Player Map Experience
Multiplayer FPS map design theory is a dense subject to say the least, but there was one more question we wanted to get out of our bevy of designers. Being the new guy in an FPS and getting dominated on account of not knowing the maps can be extremely frustrating for shooter players. How much of an advantage should the best FPS multiplayer maps lend to players who really know them?
“While that depends largely on the complexity of the map and game systems, there is always going to be some advantage to knowing your way around,” said Epic’s Jim Brown “Layout familiarity helps players formulate strategies, plan for contingencies and take advantage of opportunities that less familiar players may not even realize exist.”
Treyarch’s Phillip Tasker expressed a similar sentiment, but with a different focus. “I’ll answer this question in terms of what I believe should give players an advantage and what shouldn’t,” he said. “Good map design should reward players who have learned the tendencies and patterns of player behavior as it relates to timing and predicting engagements. We prefer not to create overly complex maps that reward players just because they know every nook and cranny where they can hide.”
Adam Crist from Certain Affinity never wants map knowledge to be too much of a determining factor in player success. “We want all players, from those that have been playing for months to first timers, to have a fun and fair experience,” he told us. “Obviously those that have been playing for some time will have a slight advantage due to knowing where the best defensible areas are, sniping locations, weapon spawns, etc., but when our design and art teams do their jobs well, new players are able to quickly learn the layout of the map and find the counters to those strong locations. At the end of the day, we want the outcome of a fight to come down to player skill and team tactics, not the layout of the level.”
Inge Jøran Holberg and Niklas Åstrand from DICE, on the other hand, were unabashed in admitting how much advantage a Battlefield player who really knows the maps inside and out will wield during a multiplayer game. “A lot,” they said. “A player that knows where the good hiding spots or strategic routes are will ultimately be more effective on a map. Typically, this is often why a map will grow on a player over time, if it fits their preferred play style. At first they will feel like strangers on a new map, coming from playing a map they maybe know everything about. Suddenly they have to start from scratch. It will take some time until they get optimal efficiency due to the sheer size of the Battlefield maps.”
Taking stock of our answers, these are the conclusions we reached through our informal study: The best multiplayer FPS maps allow players to get into the action quickly; always provide avenues for countering the enemy’s positioning; are designed around the unique core mechanics of a particular game; allow for variable tactics to lead to success; support multiple modes of play; and lend an advantage to players who know the maps well, but not such a crushing advantage that new players can’t compete.
All of that might sound obvious, but as with all things the devil’s in the details. The next time you find yourself on a really tight map in a multiplayer FPS match, take a moment afterwards to recognize how all these factors came together simultaneously to provide you with that experience. We’d like to thank all the developers who contributed to this feature both for their time, and their continuing efforts to provide us with kick-ass maps upon which to virtually shoot one another.
If you haven't already, check out Part One of How To Build The Best Multiplayer FPS Maps.
Dennis Scimeca is a freelance video game journalist from Boston, MA. His weekly video game column, First Person, appears on The Escapist. Reach him through his blog Punching Snakes, or follow him on Twitter: @DennisScimeca.